Thursday, January 16, 2020
The characteristics of effective sustainable business leadership consist of having a vision of what the business is aiming to attain, seeing the value in the process and providing the leadership to attain the goal. The leadership starts with believing in yourself knowing that your capable of making your dreams come true. John Deere was born on February 7,1804 in Rutland, Vermont. In 1836 John Deere moved to Grand Detour, Illinois to escape from depressing business conditions he had in Vermont. Capable and hard working John Deere used his skills as a blacksmith were instantly in command. John Deere opened his shop in 1837 allowing him to operate as a general repairman as well as a manufacturer of small tools such as pitchforks and shovels. Using a broken saw blade Deere created a plow in the year of 1837. By 1841, Deere produced 100 plows annually. Two years later became an alliance with Leonard Andrus to fabricate more plows to increase demand purchasing a new land for the building of a new two-story factory alongside of the Rock River in Illinois. This factory produced about 400 plows in that same year. Regardless the success, DeereÃ¢â¬â¢s alliance with Andrus finished in 1848, when Deere moved to Moline, Illinois which offered advantages of water power, coal and cheaper transportation than to be found in Grand Detour. In 1850, approximately 1600 plows were made, and the company was soon producing other tools to complement its steel plow. In 1858, Deere transferred leadership of the company to his son, Charles, who served as its vice president. John Deere retained the title of president of the company, but now turned his attention to civic and political activities. John Deere was active in public life throughout his career in Moline. Among other roles, he was a founder and president of the National Bank of Moline, was an active member of the First Congregational Church, and served as the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s mayor for two years. John Deere died on May 17, 1886, at his home in Moline. (Ã¢â¬Å"Past Leaders Ã¢â¬Å", 2014). After the death of John Deere the company was producing a collection of farm tools in addition to plows, plus wagons, corn planters, and cultivators. At the same time the company expanded into the bicycle business during the 1890Ã¢â¬â¢s, but the essential focus stayed on agricultural imp lements. IncreasedÃ competition during the early 1900s from the new International Harvester Company led the company to expand its offerings in the implement business, but it was the production of gasoline tractors which would come to define Deere & CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s operations during the twentieth century. After Charles Deere death in 1907, William Butterworth Deere & Company new president started the business expansion into the tractor business. During the years John Deere has been increasing profits as well as production becoming one of the best equipments for farming. According to Ã¢â¬Å"Past Leaders Ã¢â¬ (2014), (Deere & Company (NYSE: DE) is a world leader in providing advanced products and services and is committed to the success of customers whose work is linked to the land Ã¢â¬â those who cultivate, harvest, transform, enrich and build upon the land to meet the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s dramatically increasing need for food, fuel, shelter and infrastructure. Since 1837, John Deere has delivered innovative products of superior quality, built on a tradition of integrity). As of 2014, Deere & Company employs approximately 67,000 people in 27 countries worldwide, including the United States, Australia, Turkey, Canada, United Kingdom, China, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, India, Poland, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Morocco and South Africa, among many others and is the greatest agriculture machinery company in the world. Inside the United States, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary locations are its administrative center in Moline, Illinois and manufacturing factories in central and southeastern United States. (Ã¢â¬Å"John DeereÃ¢â¬ , 2014). Marie Z. Ziegler is Vice President and Treasurer for Deere & Company, a position sheÃ¢â¬â¢s held since November 2010. Ziegler is responsible for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s worldwide treasury and investor relations activities. Ziegler joined Deere & Company in 1978 as a consolidation accountant and has held management positions in finance, treasury operations, strategic planning and investor and banking relations. She served as Director of Investor Relations, and in May 2001, was appointed Vice President, Investor Relations for Deere & Company. (Ã¢â¬Å"John DeereÃ¢â¬ , 2014). The John Deere portfolio of businesses is varied, yet interrelated. Two of our businesses Ã¢â¬â Agricultural and Construction equipment Ã¢â¬â are in an excellent position to take advantage of global growth. Two additionalÃ businesses Ã¢â¬â Turf and Forestry equipment Ã¢â¬â support and enhance worldwide channel development. And additional supporting businesses Ã¢â¬â Financial Services, Power Systems, Parts Services, and the Intelligent Solutions Group Ã¢â¬â strengthen and differentiate our equipment businesses. Strategy. (2014). The key for John Deere success is having exceptional operating performance, disciplined SVA growth, and aligned high-performance teamwork. These factors direct success for this company as they are important for the future of John Deere as they leverage and create core strengths.. John Deere future successes will require more people working for them. For that reason, they are creating strength in four additional capabilities: Deep Customer Understanding, Delivering Customer Value, World-class Distribution System, and Growing Extraordinary Global Talent. These additional success factors are critical in order to achieve sustainable SVA growth through global growth. Shareholder Value Added (SVA) Ã¢â¬â the difference between operating profit and pretax cost of capital Ã¢â¬â is a metric used by John Deere to evaluate business results and measure sustainable performance. Why Invest. (2014). John Deere tracks their progress as they follow their growth goals by monitoring Performance metrics and Health metrics. Performance metrics is the traditional financial measures based on what they deliver to their stakeholders. Health metrics is based on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success factors such as their qualities, attributes, and actions being introduced to ensure the sustainability of our performance over time. Measures of Success.(2014). The Ã¢â¬Å"HowÃ¢â¬ is represented by John Deere core values of Integrity, Quality, Commitment, and Innovation. Customers can see the value of the products and processes. People recognize how John Deere manage an every day business, including the manner of how employees, customers,suppliers, dealers, and stakeholders are taken care of. John Deere core values define them as they come together and distinguish from competitors. John Deere commitment to these core values is optional, and never waivers. Core values.(2014).
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
The greatest 21st-century challenge that humanity will face is not terrorism, disease, or warfare. It is not solely an issue of politics, inequality, or climate change. Instead, it is the kindling that fuels and exacerbates all other issues. Our greatest challenge is one of demography. The problem is that we exist, or rather, that too many of us do, and that we are running out of ways to feed ourselves. The most pressing issue we must decide how to handle, in the face of booming population, is how to deal with our current agricultural system. This paper will present the most damaging side-effects of conventional agriculture and will show how aquaponics, a nearly entirely self-sustaining agricultural system, addresses these impacts.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Inefficient irrigation techniques allow most of the water provided to crops to evaporate or to miss crop roots entirely as it seeps underground. Despite the wasteful ways with which we treat water, a quarter of the worldÃ¢â¬â ¢s people face water shortages (Watkins et al. 2006). This proportion will only continue to grow, particularly in the Middle East and Northern Africa (Bureau and Strobl 2012). Another alarming issue is the rate with which we are losing our rain forests. At the current rate of deforestation, rain forests could be nonexistant in one hundred years. We need to preserve rainforests because they act as protectors of biodiversity. Even though they cover only 2% of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface area, they are home to over 50% of our species. Furthermore, rainforests play many other critical roles by keeping our environment balanced. Trees protect soil against erosion, perpetuate the water cycle, and act as Ã¢â¬Å"carbon sinksÃ¢â¬ for the atmosphere (Slattery 2012). Cutting down trees means releasing that stored CO2 and speeding up climate change. Still, behind 80% of deforestation is modern commercial agriculture (Kissinger et al. 2012). Sensitive rain forests are cleared to make land for crops, with devastating results on the stability of the ecosystem. Consequently, deforestation and other activities related to food production, such as fertilizer application, ac count for almost all of our land CO2 emissions,Show MoreRelatedVertical And Vertical Types Of Vertical Farming1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVertical Farms- Vertical farming is a component of urban agriculture and is the practice of producing food in vertically stacked layers or vertically inclined surfaces. Advantages of Vertical Farming Minimum Input Ã¢â¬â Maximum Output Vertical Farming is a revolutionary approach to producing high quantities of nutritious and quality fresh food all year round, without relying on skilled labour, favourable weather, high soil fertility or high water usage. Vertical Farm Systems growing cycles are consistentRead MoreAgricultural Science Sba12288 Words Ã |Ã 50 Pagesnavigation, search | Agriculture | General | * Agribusiness * Agricultural science * Agroforestry * Agronomy * Animal husbandry * Extensive farming * Factory farming * Farm * Free range * Industrial agriculture * Mechanised agriculture * Ministries * Intensive farming * Organic farming * Permaculture * Stock-free agriculture * Sustainable agriculture * Universities * Urban agriculture | History | * History of agriculture * History of organic farmingRead MoreAn Introduction to Hydrophonics and Controlled Environment Agriculture40110 Words Ã |Ã 161 PagesIntroduction to Hydroponics and Controlled Environment Agriculture by Patricia A. Rorabaugh, Ph.D. University of Arizona Controlled Environment Agriculture Center 1951 E. Roger Road Tucson, AZ 85719 Revised December, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: Controlled Environment Agriculture and Hydroponics: Past, Present and Future The Plant How to grow greenhouse crops Plant Protection: Insects and Diseases Basic Principals of Hydroponics Transplant Production Pollination, Fertilization and Bee
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
The word science probably brings many different pictures into your mind, some being: a fat textbook, white lab coats, microscopes, an astronomer looking through a telescope, a naturalist in the rainforest, Einsteins equations scribbled on a board, the launch of the space shuttle, bubbling beakers.... All of those images reflect some aspect of science, but none of them provides a full picture of what science completely is. Science is defined to be the knowledge attained through study or practice, or knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, especially as obtained and tested through scientific method and concerned with the physical world. According to the TOK book, astronomy is considered a science and astrology a pseudo science. Do you agree? Before I start discussing this statement, we should know what science, pseudo-science and astronomy, astrology really is. Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. pseudo-science is a concept that is considered to be science but it does not have enough evidence to go along side with it and prove the concept to be right. Astronomy is a science that studies everything outside of the earths atmosphere, such as planets, stars, asteroids, galaxies; and the properties and relationships of those celestial bodies. Astronomers base their studies on research and observation. Astrology on the other hand,Show MoreRelatedA Critical Review of the Introduction (pp.xi-xvi) to Cumont, Franz, Astrology Among The Greeks and Romans, New York: Dover Publications 1960 (1911)1092 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Franz CumontÃ¢â¬â¢s introduction in Astrology and Religion Among The Greek and Romans, the Dover 1960 edition of the unabridged and unaltered original work published, by G P Putnam in 1912, is aimed at the general historical and theological audience. On reading Franz Cumont introduction it is obvious he is scathing in his comments towards the practise of astrology. Along with his contempt of the continuing growth in the belief of astrology and how, throughout humankind, intellectsRead MoreThe Limitations of Falsificationism1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfalsificationist demarcation criterion and PopperÃ¯ ¿ ½s response (101) The falsificationist distinguishes between science and pseudo-science by saying that only the former is falsifiable.Ã¯ ¿ ½ HOWEVER, astrology and many religions are falsifiable because they make predictions.Ã¯ ¿ ½ To rule them out, the falsificationist must add Ã¯ ¿ ½and not be falsifiedÃ¯ ¿ ½.Ã¯ ¿ ½ HOWEVER, doing this will mean that much science isnÃ¯ ¿ ½t science, as we have seen that many theories were falsified early in their careers.Ã¯ ¿ ½ PopperÃ¯ ¿ ½s response to this latterRead MoreConstellations3730 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesConstellation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In modern astronomy, a constellation is an internationally defined area of the celestial sphere. These areas are grouped around asterisms (which themselves are generally referred to in non-technical language as constellations), which are patterns formed by prominent stars within apparent proximity to one another on Earths night sky. There are 88 standard constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) since 1922. TheRead MoreConstellations5203 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagessystemÃ can unambiguously be assigned to a constellation. It is usual in astronomy to give the constellation in which a given object is found along with its coordinates in order to convey a rough idea in which part of the sky it is located. Contents Ã Ã [hide]Ã * 1Terminology * 2History * 2.1Ancient near East * 2.2Chinese astronomy * 2.3Indian astronomy * 2.4Classical antiquity * 2.5Islamic astronomy * 2.6Early Modern era * 3IAU constellations * 4Asterisms Read MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words Ã |Ã 209 PagesMoon: Ã¢â¬Å"On the Creation, Proportion and Composition of the Heavens for the Fashioning of ImagesÃ¢â¬ VI. The Picatrix: Lunar Mansions in Western Astrology VII. W. B. Yeats and Ã¢â¬Å"A Vision:Ã¢â¬ The Arab Mansions of the Moon On Ritual and Talismans Picatrix Astrological Magic Aphorisms Extracts on Planetary Ritual Clothing Twenty Two Benefic Astrological Talismans Astrology, Magical Talismans and the Mansions of the Moon Ritual of Jupiter An Astrological Election of Mercury in the First Face of Virgo for WealthRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pages............................................................................................... 499 CHAPTER 15 Scientific Reasoning ........................................................................................... 508 What is Science? ................................................................................................................................. 508 Reviewing the Principles of Scientific Reasoning..............................................................Read MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 Pagesunderstanding the diverse nature of organization theory Mapping some aspects of organization theoryÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity Positivist protagonists: the truth is out there, and we can objectively know it Philosophical disputes around the role of the subjective in science Epistemological and ontolological disputes: how can we ever know the Ã¢â¬ËtruthÃ¢â¬â¢ and is there an Ã¢â¬Ëout thereÃ¢â¬â¢? A few words of warning about the term postmodernism Overview of the structure and rationale of the book Chapter summaries Chapter 2: Modernist
Monday, December 23, 2019
After six consecutive years of profitability, the U.S airline industry was descended into a downward spiral. The number of passengers flying dropped from 56 million in August 2001 to 30 million in September with no passengers for two days after the attacks (Poling). It took three years for the airlines to reach the 56 million passenger mark again. The impact on the travel industry, specifically the airlines, was more severe than in other areas. Immediately following the September 11th attacks, the airline industry was severely damaged with a four day shutdown of the national aviation system. Across much of the United States and Canada, flights were grounded. Airlines and airports that did not have dedicated ground crews and additionalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many businesses temporarily suspended non-essential travel for their employees, significantly reducing business travel (Logan). Congress responded by creating the Air Transportation Stabilization Board, a body authorized to give the airlines up to $10 billion dollars in loans (Logan). However, despite this funding, several important airlines including American and US Airways, declared bankruptcy while other smaller airlines ceased operations. The lack of passenger demand canceled flights and increased security expenditures resulted in massive financial losses. In addition to layoffs, airlines were forced to renegotiate labor contracts (Logan). Lingering effects of the 9/11 attacks continued over the next few years. Airlines struggled to match the decline in passenger traffic by cutting capacity and changing route destinations (Tyler). This spanned the development of low cost carriers and air fares decreased over the next few years. The rising dominance of low cost carriers in the domestic market place caused the major U.S. carriers to shift capacity from domestic to international markets. Passenger traffic finally reached its pre 9/11 levels in 2004, although, profitability did not return until 2006 ( Tyler). The airline industry also had to adjust to changes in consumer attitude. The Transportation Security
Sunday, December 15, 2019
Recent changes in American society have resulted in increasing number of minority students enrolling in colleges and universities. Differing views among these ethnic groups can sometimes cause conflicts for students of all races (Cozic 249). Some argue that students and universities benefit from these ethnic conflicts. We will write a custom essay sample on The Ethnic Conflicts or any similar topic only for you Order Now Same time others believe that increasing racial diversity in American colleges and university has led to a decrease in the quality of education. People who support multiculturalism in universities believe that Ã¢â¬Å"students who can resolve conflict in racially diverse universities will be better prepared to succeed than students at universities that are more homogeneousÃ¢â¬ (Cozic 249). Conflict is expected, perhaps even healthy, in a social situation where people have different interests and compete for scarce resources (Duster 251). Some American schools are racially integrated, so Ã¢â¬Å"it is not surprising that students experience shock and tension when they arrive at their first experience of multiculturalismÃ¢â¬ (251). But shocks like this maybe a good preparation for future life. According to Duster, nowadays students are Ã¢â¬Å"far more competent, far more eligible, far more prepared than when this [Berkley] was an all-white university in 1950Ã¢â¬ ³(252). Back in 1960s , when the campus was mainly white, almost every eligible student who applied to Berkley was admitted (252). But Ã¢â¬Å"when the United States changed its immigration laws in the 1970s, well-qualified candidates from China, Hong Kong, and Korea swelled the pool of applicantsÃ¢â¬ (252). Suddenly, not everyone who was eligible could get in (252). The increasing number of minorities applying to universities created Ã¢â¬Å"increasingly ferocious competition at the same-sized admissions gateÃ¢â¬ (252). The media, so far has chosen to emphasize the beleaguered white student who has to adjust to affirmative action (252). IsnÃ¢â¬ t it a shame, stories imply, that these students are feeling uncomfortable in an environment that used to be their university (252). It isnÃ¢â¬ t theirs anymore (252). Since the demographics of the United States are changing at a fast rate, Ã¢â¬Å"shouldnÃ¢â¬ t the university population and curriculum reflect more of this new reality? Ã¢â¬Å"(252 Ã¢â¬â 53). Meanwhile, the quality of students at universities is only getting better. Duster implies that affirmative action exists because, Ã¢â¬Å"over the past two hundred years, blacks and Latinos have had a difficult time entering higher education, and that legacy hasnÃ¢â¬ t gone awayÃ¢â¬ (253). There are economic barriers that restrict access to college for minorities. And these barriers arenÃ¢â¬ t disappearing. The smartest among them [Berkley students] also see that in a globalized economy, BerkleyÃ¢â¬ s multiculturalism can make them better leadersÃ¢â¬ ¦. (254). The opponents of cultural diversity believe that Ã¢â¬Å"affirmative action favors minorities whose average academic performance is unacceptably below university standardsÃ¢â¬ (Cozic 257). DÃ¢â¬ Souza argues that the question is not whether universities should seek diversity but what kind of diversity. It seems that the primary form of diversity which universities should try to foster is diversity of mind (DÃ¢â¬ Souza 258). He says that Ã¢â¬Å"such diversity would enrich academic discourse, widen its parameters, multiply its objects of inquiry, and increase the probability of obscure and unlikely terrain being investigatedÃ¢â¬ (258). According to DÃ¢â¬ Souza, the problem begins with a deep sense of embarrassment over the small number of minorities Ã¢â¬â blacks in particular Ã¢â¬â on campuses. University officials speak of themselves as more enlightened and progressive than the general population, so they feel guilty if the proportion of minorities at their institution is smaller than in surrounding society (259). As a consequence, universities agree to make herculean efforts to attract as many blacks, Hispanics, and other certified minorities as possible to their institutions (259). The number of minority applicants who would normally qualify for acceptance at selective universities is very small; therefore, in order to meet ambitious recruitment targets, affirmative action must entail fairly drastic compromises in admissions requirements (259). University leaders are willing to use unjust means to achieve their goal of equal representation, says DÃ¢â¬ Souza. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"the California legislature is considering measures to require all state colleges to accept black, Hispanic, white, and Asian students in proportion with their level in the population, regardless of disparity in academic preparation or qualifications among such groupsÃ¢â¬ (259). Many selective universities are so famished for minority students that they will accept virtually anyone of the right color (260). For minority students, who struggled through high school, the courtship of selective universities comes as a welcome surprise. During their freshman year, many minority students discover that they are not prepared to the college work load and it is hard to keep up with another students. For minority students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, these problems are often complicated by a difficult personal adjustment to a new environment (261). University leaders have discovered how displaced and unsettled minority freshmen can be, and typically respond by setting up counseling services and remedial education programs intended to assure blacks and Hispanics that they do belong, and that they can Ã¢â¬Å"catch upÃ¢â¬ with other students (261). For many minority undergraduates the universityÃ¢â¬ s quest for racial equality produces a conspicuous academic inequality (261). In the minds of minority students, affirmative action is not a cause of their academic difficulties, but an excuse for white racism which is the real source of their problems (263). How to cite The Ethnic Conflicts, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Ecological economics ? Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ecological economics From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that aims to address the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems over time and space.  It is distinguished from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment, by its treatment of the economy as a subsystem of the ecosystem and its emphasis upon preserving natural capital. One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought, with ecological economists emphasizing strong sustainability and rejecting the proposition that natural capital can be substituted by human-made capital.  Ecological economics was founded in the works of Kenneth E. Boulding, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Herman Daly, Robert Costanza, and others. The related field of green economics is, in general, a more politically applied form of the subject.  According to ecological economist Malte Faber, ecological economics is defined by its focus on nature, justice, and time. Issues of intergenerational equity, irreversibility of environmental change, uncertainty of long-term outcomes, and sustainable development guide ecological economic analysis and valuation.  Ecological economists have questioned fundamental mainstream economic approaches such as cost-benefit analysis, and the separability of economic values from scientific research, contending that economics is unavoidably normative rather than positive (empirical). Positional analysis, which attempts to incorporate time and justice issues, is proposed as an alternative.  The three nested systems of sustainability the economy wholly contained by society, wholly contained by the biophysical environment. Clickable. Ecological economics includes the study of the metabolism of society, that is, the study of the flows of energy and materials that enter and exit the economic system. This subfield may also be referred to as biophysical economics, bioeconomics, and has links with the applied science of industrial symbiosis. Ecological economics is based on a conceptual model of the economy connected to, and sustained by, a flow of energy, materials, and ecosystem services.  Analysts from a variety of disciplines have conducted research on the economy-environment relationship, with concern for energy and material flows and sustainability, environmental quality, and economic development.  Contents 1 Nature and ecology 2 Ethics 3 Schools of thought 4 Differentiation from mainstream schools 5 History and development 6 Topics 6. 1 Methodology 6. 2 Allocation of resources 6. 3 Strong versus weak sustainability 6.4 Energy economics 6. 5 Energy accounting and balance 6. 6 Environmental services 6. 7 Externalities 6. 8 Ecological-economic modeling 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Nature and ecology Main articles: Nature and Ecology A simple circular flow of income diagram is replaced in ecological economics by a more complex flow diagram reflecting the input of solar energy, which sustains natural inputs and environmental services which are then used as units of production. Once consumed, natural inputs pass out of the economy as pollution and waste. The potential of an environment to provide services and materials is en.Ã wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_economics 1/9 15/09/12 Ecological economics ? Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia referred to as an environments source function, and this function is depleted as resources are consumed or pollution contaminates the resources. The sink function describes an environments ability to absorb and render harmless waste and pollution: when waste output exceeds the limit of the sink function, long-term damage occurs. :8 Some persistent pollutants, such as some organic pollutants and nuclear waste are absorbed very slowly or not at all; ecological economists emphasize minimizing cumulative pollutants. Pollutants affect human health and the health of the climate. The economic value of natural capital and ecosystem services is accepted by mainstream environmental economics, but is emphasized as especially important in ecological economics. Ecological economists may begin by estimating how to maintain a stable environment before assessing the cost in dollar terms. :9 Ecological economist Robert Costanza led an attempted valuation of the global ecosystem in 1997. Initially published in Nature, the article concluded on $33 trillion with a range from $16 trillion to $54 trillion (in 1997, total global GDP was $27 trillion). Half of the value went to nutrient cycling. The open oceans, continental shelves, and estuaries had the highest total value, and the highest per-hectare values went to estuaries, swamps/floodplains, and seagrass/algae beds. The work was criticized by articles in Ecological Economics Volume 25, Issue 1, but the critics acknowledged the positive potential for economic valuation of the global ecosystem. :129 Environmental Scientist sampling water. The Earths carrying capacity is a central issue in ecological economics. Early economists such as Thomas Malthus pointed out the finite carrying capacity of the earth, which was also central to the MIT study Limits to Growth. Diminishing returns suggest that productivity increases will slow if major technological progress is not made. Food production may become a problem, as erosion, an impending water crisis, and soil salinity (from irrigation) reduce the productivity of agriculture. Ecological economists argue that industrial agriculture, which exacerbates these problems, is not sustainable agriculture, and are generally inclined favorably to organic farming, which also reduces the output of carbon. Global wild fisheries are believed to have peaked and begun a decline, with valuable habitat such as estuaries in critical condition. :28 The aquaculture or farming of piscivorous fish, like salmon, does not help solve the problem because they need to be fed products from other fish. Studies have shown that salmon farming has major negative impacts on wild salmon, as well as the forage fish that need to be caught to feed them.  Since animals are higher on the trophic level, they are less efficient sources of food energy. Reduced consumption of meat would reduce the demand for food, but as nations develop, they tend to adopt high-meat diets similar to that of the United States. Genetically modified food (GMF) a conventional solution to the problem, presents numerous problems Ã¢â¬â Bt corn produces its own Bacillus thuringiensis, but the pest resistance is believed to be only a matter of time. :31 The overall effect of GMF on yields is contentious, with the USDA and FAO acknowledging that GMFs do not necessarily have higher yields and may even have reduced yields. Global warming is now widely acknowledged as a major issue, with all national scientific academies expressing agreement on the importance of the issue. As the population growth intensifies and energy demand increases, the world faces an energy crisis. Some economists and scientists forecast a global ecological crisis if energy use is not contained Ã¢â¬â the Stern report is an example. The disagreement has sparked a vigorous debate on issue of discounting and intergenerational equity. GLOBAL GEOCHEMICAL CYCLES CRITICAL FOR LIFE Nitrogen cycle Water cycle Carbon cycle Oxygen cycle Ethics Mainstream economics has attempted to become a value-free hard science, but ecological economists argue that value-free economics is generally not realistic. Ecological economics is more willing to entertain alternative conceptions of utility, efficiency, and cost-benefits such as positional analysis or multi-criteria analysis. Ecological economics is typically viewed as economics for sustainable development, and may have goals similar to green politics. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_economics Renewable energy sources Biofuels Ã¢â¬ ¢ Biomass Ã¢â¬ ¢ Geothermal Hydro power Ã¢â¬ ¢ Solar power Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tidal power Wave power Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wind power 2/9 15/09/12 Ecological economics ? Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Schools of thought Various competing schools of thought exist in the field. Some are close to resource and environmental economics while others are far more heterodox in outlook. An example of the latter is the European Society for Ecological Economics. An example of the former is the Swedish Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics. Differentiation from mainstream schools In ecological economics, natural capital is added to the typical capital asset analysis of land, labor, and financial capital. Ecological economics uses tools from mathematical economics, but may apply them more closely to the natural world. Whereas mainstream economists tend to be technological optimists, ecological economists are inclined to be technological pessimists. They reason that the natural world has a limited carrying capacity and that its resources may run out. Since destruction of important environmental resources could be practically irreversible and catastrophic, ecological economists are inclined to justify cautionary measures based on the precautionary principle.  The most cogent example of how the different theories treat similar assets is tropical rainforest ecosystems, most obviously the Yasuni region of Ecuador. While this area has substantial deposits of bitumen it is also one of the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and some estimates establish it has over 200 undiscovered medical substancesÃ in its genomes most of which would be destroyed by logging the forest or mining the bitumen. Effectively, the instructional capital of the genomes is undervalued by analyses which view the rainforest primarily as a source of wood, oil/tar and perhaps food. Increasingly the carbon credit for leaving the extremely carbon-intensive (dirty) bitumen in the ground is also valued the government of Ecuador set a price of US$350M for an oil le ase with the intent of selling it to someone committed to never exercising it at all and instead preserving the rainforest. History and development Early interest in ecology and economics dates back to the 1960s and the work by Kenneth Boulding and Herman Daly, but the first meetings occurred in the 1980s. It began with a 1982 symposium in Sweden (http://www. ecoeco. org/pdf/costanza. pdf) which was attended by people who would later be instrumental in the field, including Robert Costanza, Herman Daly, Charles Hall, Ann-Mari Jansson, Bruce Hannon, H. T. Odum, and David Pimentel. Most were ecosystem ecologists or mainstream environmental economists, with the exception of Daly. In 1987, Daly and Costanza edited an issue of Ecological Modeling to test the waters. A book entitled Ecological Economics, by Juan Martinez-Alier (http://unjobs. org/authors/juan-martinez-alier) , was published later that year.  1989 saw the foundation of the International Society for Ecological Economics and publication of its journal, Ecological Economics, by Elsevier. Robert Costanza was the first president of the society and first editor of the journal, currently edited by Richard Howarth. European conceptual founders include Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (1971), K. William Kapp (1950) and Karl Polanyi (1944).  Some key concepts of what is now ecological economics are evident in the writings of E.F. Schumacher, whose book Small Is Beautiful Ã¢â¬â A Study of Economics as if People Mattered (1973) was published just a few years before the first edition of Herman Dalys comprehensive and persuasive Steady-State Economics (1977).  Other figures include ecologists C. S. Holling, H. T. Odum and Robert Costanza, biologist Gretchen Daily and physicist R obert Ayres. CUNY geography professor David Harvey explicitly added ecological concerns to political economic literature. This parallel development in political economy has been continued by analysts such as sociologist John Bellamy Foster. The antecedents can be traced back to the Romantics of the 19th century as well as some Enlightenment political economists of that era. Concerns over population were expressed by Thomas Malthus, while John Stuart Mill hypothesized that the stationary state of an economy was desirable, anticipating later insights of modern ecological economists, without having had their experience of the social and ecological costs of the dramatic post-World War II industrial expansion. As Martinez-Alier explores in his book the debate on energy in economic systems can also be traced into the 19th century e. g. Nobel prize-winning chemist, Frederick Soddy (1877Ã¢â¬â 1956). Soddy criticized the prevailing belief of the economy as a perpetual motion machine, capable of generating infinite wealth Ã¢â¬â a criticism echoed by his intellectual heirs in the now emergent field of ecological economics.  The Romanian economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (1906Ã¢â¬â1994), who was among Dalys teachers at Vanderbilt University, provided ecological economics with a modern conceptual framework based on the material and energy flows of economic production and consumption. His magnum opus, The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (1971), has been highly influential. Articles by Inge Ropke (2004, 2005) and Clive Spash (1999) cover the development and modern history of ecological economics and explain its differentiation from resource and environmental economics, as well as some of the controversy between American and European schools of thought. An article by Robert Costanza, David Stern, Lining He, and Chunbo Ma responded to a call by Mick Common to determine the foundational literature of ecological economics by using citation analysis to examine which books and articles have had the most influence on the development of the field. Topics en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_economics 3/9 15/09/12 Ecological economics ? Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Methodology A primary objective of ecological economics (EE) is to ground economic thinking and practice in physical reality, especially in the laws of physics (particularly the laws of thermodynamics) and in knowledge of biological systems. It accepts as a goal the improvement of human well-being through development, and seeks to ensure achievement of this through planning for the sustainable development of ecosystems and societies. Of course the terms development and sustainable development are far from lacking controversy. Richard Norgaard argues traditional economics has hi-jacked the development terminology in his book Development Betrayed.  Well-being in ecological economics is also differentiated from welfare as found in mainstream economics and the new welfare economics from the 1930s which informs resource and environmental economics. This entails a limited preference utilitarian conception of value i. e., Nature is valuable to our economies, that is because people will pay for its services such as clean air, clean water, encounters with wilderness, etc. Ecological economics is distinguishable from neoclassical economics primarily by its assertion that the economy is embedded within an environmental system. Ecology deals with the energy and matter transactions of life and the Earth, and the human economy is by definition contained within this system. Ecological economists argue that neoclassical econ omics has ignored the environment, at best considering it to be a subset of the human economy. The neoclassical view ignores much of what the natural sciences have taught us about the contributions of nature to the creation of wealth e. g. , the planetary endowment of scarce matter and energy, along with the complex and biologically diverse ecosystems that provide goods and ecosystem services directly to human communities: micro- and macro-climate regulation, water recycling, water purification, storm water regulation, waste absorption, food and medicine production, pollination, protection from solar and cosmic radiation, the view of a starry night sky, etc. There has then been a move to regard such things as natural capital and ecosystems functions as goods and services.  However, this is far from uncontroversial within ecology or ecological economics due to the potential for narrowing down values to those found in mainstream economics and the danger of merely regarding Nature as a commodity. This has been referred to as ecologists selling out on Nature.  There is then a concern that ecological economics has failed to learn from the extensive literature in environmental ethics about how to structure a plural value system. Allocation of resources Resource and neoclassical economics focus primarily on the efficient allocation of resources, and less on two other fundamental economic problems which are central to ecological economics: distribution (equity) and the scale of the economy relative to the ecosystems upon which it is reliant.  Ecological Economics also makes a clear distinction between growth (quantitative increase in economic output) and development (qualitative improvement of the quality of life) while arguing that neoclassical economics confuses the two. Ecological economists point out that, beyond modest levels, increased per-capita consumption (the typical economic measure of standard of living) does not necessarily lead to improvement in human well-being, while this same consumption can have harmful effects on the environment and broader societal well-being. Strong versus weak sustainability Ecological economics challenges the conventional approach towards natural resources, claiming that it undervalues natural capital by considering it as interchangeable with human-made capitalÃ¢â¬âlabor and technology. The potential for the substitution of man-made capital for natural capital is an important debate in ecological economics and the economics of sustainability. There is a continuum of views among economists between the strongly neoclassical positions of Robert Solow and Martin Weitzman, at one extreme and the Ã¢â¬Ëentropy pessimistsÃ¢â¬â¢, notably Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen and Herman Daly, at the other.  Neoclassical economists tend to maintain that man-made capital can, in principle, replace all types of natural capital. This is known as the weak sustainability view, essentially that every technology can be improved upon or replaced by innovation, and that there is a substitute for any and all scarce materials. At the other extreme, the strong sustainability view argues that the stock of natural resources and ecological functions are irreplaceable. From the premises of strong sustainability, it follows that economic policy has a fiduciaryÃ responsibility to the greater ecological world, and that sustainable development must therefore take a different approach to valuing natural resources and ecological functions. Energy economics Main article: Energy economics en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ecological_economics 4/9 15/09/12 Ecological economics ? Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A key concept of energy economics is net energy gain, which recognizes that all energy requires energy to produce. To be useful the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) has to be greater than one. The net energy gain from production coal, oil and gas has declined over time as the easiest to produce sources have been most heavily depleted.  Ecological economics generally rejects the view of energy economics that growth in the energy supply is related directly to well being, focusing instead on biodiversity and creativity or natural capital and individual capital, in the terminology sometimes adopted to describe these economically. In practice, ecological economics focuses primarily on the key issues of uneconomic growth and quality of life. Ecological economists are inclined to acknowledge that much of what is important in human well-being is not analyzable from a strictly economic standpoint and suggests an interdisciplinary approach combining social and natural sciences as a means to address this. Thermoeconomics is based on the proposition that the role of energy in biological evolution should be defined and understood through the second law of thermodynamics, but also in terms of such economic criteria as productivity, efficiency, and especially the costs and benefits (or profitability) of the various mechanisms for capturing and utilizing available energy to build biomass and do work.  As a result, thermoeconomics are often discussed in the field of ecological economics, which itself is related to the fields of sustainability and sustainable development. Exergy analysis is performed in the field of industrial ecology to use energy more efficiently.  The term exergy, was coined by Zoran Rant in 1956, but the concept was developed by J. Willard Gibbs. In recent decades, utilization of exergy has spread outside of physics and engineering to the fields of industrial ecology, ecological economics, systems ecology, and energetics. Energy accounting and balance Also see:Net energy gain An energy balance can be used to track energy through a system, and is a very useful tool for determining resource use and environmental impacts, using the First and Second laws of thermodynamics, to determine how much energy is needed at each point in a system, and in what form that energy is a cost in various environmental issues.  The energy accounting system keeps track of energy in, energy out, and non-useful energy versus work done, and transformations within the system. Scientists have written and speculated on different aspects of energy accounting.  Environmental services A study was carried out by Costanza and colleagues to determine the price of the services provided by the environment. This was determined by averaging values obtained from a range of studies conducted in very specific context and then transferring these without regard to that context. Dollar figures were averaged to a per hectare number for different types of ecosystem e. g. wetlands, oceans. A total was then produced which came out at 33 trillion US dollars (1997 values), more than twice the total GDP of the world at the time of the study. This study was criticized by pre-ecological and even some environmental economists for being inconsistent with assumptions of financial capital valuation and ecological economists for being inconsistent with an ecological economics focus on biological and physical indicators.  See also ecosystem valuation and price of life. The whole idea of treating ecosystems as goods and services to be valued in monetary terms remains controversial to some.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Determining Activation Energy Essay Activation energy of a reaction Mengyuan Wu IB Chem HL Richard Forster March 20, 2013 Introduction: In this experiment, a reduction of peroxodisulphate (VI) ions by iodine ions is investigated. Solution of 10cm3 of K2S2O8, potassium peroxodisulphate, represented as Ã¢â¬ËSolution AÃ¢â¬â¢. Mixture of 5cm3 of KI (Potassium iodide solution), and 5 cm3 of Na2S2O3 (sodium thiosulphate solution), and 2. 5cm3 of starch solution is considered as Ã¢â¬ËSolution BÃ¢â¬â¢. Solution A and B are mixed together under different temperatures to show a Ã¢â¬Å"clockÃ¢â¬ reaction. Observation: Table 1: Raw Quantitative Data of Temperature and Time from the Experiment Fixed / Ideal Temperature (Ã °C)| Temperature of Solution A (Ã °CÃ ±0. 5Ã °C)| Temperature of Solution B (Ã °CÃ ±0. 5Ã °C)| Time Taken| Time Proceeded (secondsÃ ±1 seconds)| 30| 31. 0| 31. 0| 3:10:34| 191| 35| 36. 0| 33. 5| 2:11:83| 132| 40| 40. 0| 38. 0| 1:37:24| 97| 45| 46. 0| 45. 5| 1:12:83| 73| 50| 51. 0| 51. 0| 0:52:40| 53| Qualitative: Before: Solution A: clear colorless solutions; Solution B: clear colorless solution During: Both solution A and B reached (or close to) a fixed temperature and mixed together form a clear colorless solution reaction time: one or few section of the solution turned clear light purple opaque purple, then the section expand to the entire solution speedily within a second the purple opaque solution gradually turn to a darker purple color After: Dark purple-black colored opaque solution Processing and Presenting Data: We will write a custom essay sample on Determining Activation Energy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Determining Activation Energy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Determining Activation Energy specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Table 2: Uncertainty of the Apparatus Used in the Experiment Equipment| Uncertainty| Explanation| Stopwatch| SecondsÃ ±1 second| The actual uncertainty of the stopwatch is millisecond, shown in the column Ã¢â¬ËTime TakenÃ¢â¬â¢ in Table 1. However, there are human reaction uncertainties when receiving the change in color in the actual experiment, so that particular uncertainty is presented by Ã ±1 second| 50cm3 Burette for K2S2O8, KI, and Na2S2O3| cm3Ã ±0. 02cm30. 02% for each solution| Initial Reading (Ã ±0. 1cm3) + Final reading (Ã ±0. 1cm3) = volume used (Ã ±0. cm3) for every solution measured in mixture A or B| 10mL Measuring Cylinder for starch solution| mLÃ ±0. 2mL| | Thermometer| Ã °CÃ ±1. 0Ã °C| Mixture A and B both have separate (but relatively close) temperature with uncertainty of Ã ±0. 5Ã °C each, after the average of the two the uncertainty doubles| Table 3: Processed date for temperature and time Average Temperature of the reaction (Ã °CÃ ±1. 0Ã °C)| P roceed Temperature (KÃ ±1. 0K)| Time Proceeded (secondsÃ ±1 seconds)| 31. 0| 304. 0| 191| 35. 0| 308. 0| 132| 39. 0| 312. 0| 97| 46. 0| 319. 0| 73| 51. 0| 324. 0| 53| Table 4: Processed data for Graphing ln 1t (3 sig fig)| 1T (K)(4 sig fig)| -5. 25| 0. 003289| -4. 88| 0. 003246| -4. 57| 0. 003205| -4. 29| 0. 003134| -3. 97| 0. 003086| ln 1t=lnK (Proportional) t= Time T= Temperature (in K) Graph1: Calculation: Values: Table 4: Calculation to Process Temperature: | | Calculation 1: Average Temperature (Ã °CÃ ±1. 0Ã °C)| Calculation 2: Temperature in K (KÃ ±1. 0K)| | Formula| Temp. of A+Temp. of B2| Temp. in Ã °C+273| Fixed / Ideal Temperature (Ã °C)| 30| 31. 0+31. 02=31. 0| 31. 0+273=304. 0| | 35| 36. 0+33. 52=34. 75? 35. 0| 35. +273=308. 0| | 40| 40. 0+38. 02=39. 0| 39. 0+273=312. 0| | 45| 46. 0+45. 52=45. 75? 46. 0| 46. 0+273=319. 0| | 50| 51. 0+51. 02=51. 0| 51. 0+273=324. 0| Table 5: Calculation for Graphing Data | Calculation 3:ln 1t| Calculation 4:1T(K)| Fixed / Ideal Temperature (Ã °C)| 30| ln1191? -5. 25| 1304? 0. 003289| | 35| ln1132? -4. 88| 1308? 0. 003246| | 40| ln197? -4. 57| 1312? 0. 003205| | 45| ln173? -4. 29| 1319? 0. 003134| | 50| ln153? -3. 97| 1324? 0. 003086| Calculation 5 (Activation Energy): lnk= -EaR ? 1T+lnA y = m(slope) x + c R=8. 314 Jmol-1K-1(Diploma) Data from Graph 1: y = -6045. 3x + 14. 705 -6045. 3 = -EaR Ea=8. 314 ? 6045. 3 =50260. 6242 J =50. 2606242 KJ Random Errors: Calculation 6: (%Random Error for Average Temperature of the Reaction) Average temperature of the reaction K Ã ± 1. 0 K (Refer to Table 2) % Error=1. 0304. 0+1. 0308. 0+1. 0312. 0+1. 0319. 0+1. 0324. 0? 100 ? 1. 596% Calculation 7: (%Random Error for Time) Time Taken Seconds Ã ± 1 Second (estimated human reaction time) (Refer to Table 2) % Error=1191+1132+197+173+153? 100? 5. 569% Calculation 8: (% Random Error for Solutions) Random Error for K2S2O8+KI+ Na2S2O3+Starch 0. 02%? 3+0. 22. 5? 100 ? 8. 06% Calculation 8: (Total % Random Error) % Error=1. 596%+5. 569%+8. 06% =15. 225%=20% (one sig. fig. ) Final Answer: Calculation 9: (Final Answer) 50. 2606242 KJ Ã ±20% 50. 2606242 KJ =50. 3 KJ (3 sig. fig. >smallest sig. fig. in calculation) 50. 2606242 KJ? 0. 2? 10. 052 KJ=10KJ (one sig. fig. ) Experimental Result: 50. 3 KJ Ã ±10KJ 50. 3 KJ Ã ±20% Work Cited: D iploma Programme Chemistry Data Booklet. 2nd ed. Cardiff: International Baccalaureate Organization, 2008. 6. Print.